If your debt is large enough, and you can not negotiate with the bank about its restructuring, it will almost certainly end the matter by the court. How much considered big enough to go to court - this question depends essentially on the concrete bank of Russia and the region. For example, in Moscow by the court usually end those loans for which the total debt (including interest and penalties) exceeds 50-100 thousand rubles.
As for the Bank of maturities in the court, there is no certainty there is, and can only talk about the exemplary orientations. As mortgage banks typically sue relatively quickly, after an average of 3-6 months after the formation of the debt. By car loans is longer, usually in the range of 4-12 months after the borrower stopped paying. Naturally, if the debtor is trying to establish a dialogue with the bank or make any payments to these terms may significantly increase. In rare cases, the bank can simply "forget" about the debt for many months, until the expiration of the period of the loan.
For simple consumer credit spread on terms even more than for mortgages and car loans. How many bank sues for nonpayment of the loan - this is determined by many factors: the size of the debt, the bank's characteristics, peculiarities of the reservoir, the behavior of the borrower, etc. Large banks (for example, the Savings Bank) appeal to the court quickly - literally within 3-5 months after the borrower stopped paying. Banks less, especially if they are actively using the collectors go to court much more slowly - in six months, a year or even more.
Here are a few examples, typical for Moscow; for other regions of the data, of course, can not be true. Suppose you have a loan in the Moscow Credit Bank, the balance owed 300 thousand rubles, you stopped paying, and no longer comes in contact with either the bank or the collector - in this case, wait for going to court about six months. If in the same initial situation somehow communicate with the bank and periodically answer calls collectors (promising to pay everything, everything, but later), the maturity period of the court may increase up to a half or two years.